According to a FIFA study published on Friday, football clubs spent almost $ 1.9 billion less on international player transfers during the European summer transfer window than last year.

The disruption to the football industry from the coronavirus pandemic extended trading by five weeks through October. Loss of revenue from broadcasting and ticket sales took billions of dollars off the market.

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FIFA’s transfer monitoring system recorded spending of $ 3.92 billion on players moving between clubs in different countries. In the shorter summer window in 2019, sales were $ 5.8 billion.

Since 2010, clubs have been required to share financial details on cross-border player changes with the FIFA platform. It should also help to clean up the often murky transfer market.

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Women’s football transfer monitoring became mandatory in 2018, and in the last trading period the value of fees almost doubled from the previous year. According to FIFA, the total value of the international market from June to October was $ 821,800.

European clubs were mostly the largest donors, with $ 3.78 billion. English clubs spent the most money at $ 1.25 billion in the market, which closed on Monday. Italian clubs spent $ 544 million buying foreign players.

The money in circulation showed that European clubs also received transfer fees of $ 3.5 billion. Spanish clubs raised $ 672 million, Italian clubs $ 484 million and $ 396 million went to England.

The FIFA figures are only partial as they do not contain any transfer agreements between clubs in the same country.

Still, there is a strong trend for money to flow from Europe to South America.

The FIFA report lists South American clubs that receive $ 295 million from international transfers and spend only $ 25 million.

Asian confederation clubs spent $ 87 million and received $ 62 million.

The transfer volume fell from more than 9,000 international transactions a year ago to 7,424 in the last summer window.

The number of trades with a fee decreased by almost 25% to a total of 1,222.

FIFA counted four categories of international transfers: perpetual deals, contract signing for freelance agents, loans, and players returning from loans.

In women’s football, 522 deals were closed across international borders in the recently closed transfer window, compared to 385 a year ago. FIFA has not broken down the numbers by continent.

A total of 18 transfers had a higher average fee than a year ago when 16 transactions totaled $ 454,600.